Blog Archives

How To Communicate The Value Of User Research


The beginning of a new project: Your client needs help with a redesign of its website or application.

“We want to improve the user experience, it has to be jaw-dropping for our customers, we want them to fall in love with our product.”

Here is the good news: Your client is aware of User Experience (UX), cares about customers’ needs and sees the value in investing in a great user experience. They asked for an expert with UX skills to help, but do theyreally understand what it means to deliver an exceptional user experience?

User research is a vital component of UX design. Don’t let anyone tell you otherwise.

User research is a vital component of UX design. Don’t let anyone tell you otherwise.

UX is more than a bunch of rules and heuristics that you follow in your product design process. UX is subjective, as the name suggests. It is the (subjective) experience that a user gets while using a product. Therefore, we have to understand the needs and goals of potential users (and those are unique for each product), their tasks, and context.

As a UX expert you should already be familiar with the maxim, It all starts with knowing the user.

Now for some bad news; this is the point when you discover your client’s misconceptions about UX.

UX expert: “Ok, let’s start with your users: Who are they? What do they do? What do they want? What are some of their pain points? I would like to talk to them, observe them, learn from them…”

Client: “Oh, we don’t need user research, that’s a waste of time.”

Wrong!

In this post I will try to explain why, and hopefully, help fellow UX specialists in their efforts to convince clients that good UX is next to impossible if it is not preceded by good user research.

No Need For User Research? There Is Always A Need For User Research

You cannot create a great user experience if you don’t know your users or their needs.

Don’t let anyone tell you differently. Don’t simply accept the common argument that there is no time or money to do any user research for your project.

User research should shape your product design and define guidelines that will enable you to make the right UX decisions.

User research should shape your product design and define guidelines that will enable you to make the right UX decisions.

User research will shape your product; it will define the guidelines for creating a product with a good experience. Not spending any time on research, and basing all of your design decisions on best guesses and assumptions, puts you at risk of not meeting your user needs.

This is how senior UX architect Jim Ross UXmatters sees it:

“Creating something without knowing users and their needs is a huge risk that often leads to a poorly designed solution and, ultimately, results in far higher costs and sometimes negative consequences.”

Lack Of User Research Can Lead To Negative Consequences

Skipping user research will often result in “featurities,” decisions that are driven by technical possibilities and not filtered by user goals.

“My wife would really enjoy this feature! Oh, and I heard from this person that they would like to be able to xyz, so let’s add it in there too.”

This leads to things such as overly complex dashboards in cars, where the user’s focus should be on driving, not on figuring out how to navigate an elaborate infotainment system.

Many users find automotive infotainment systems overly complex and distracting. Identifying the target audience is crucial to good UX design.

Many users find automotive infotainment systems overly complex and distracting. Identifying the target audience is crucial to good UX design.

Tesla’s cutting edge infotainment system, based on Nvidia Tegra hardware, employs two oversized displays, one of which replaces traditional dials, while the other one replaces the center console. Yes, it looks good, but it was designed with tech savvy users in mind. In other words, geeks will love it, but it’s clearly not for everyone. It works for Tesla and its target audience, but don’t expect to see such solutions in low-cost vehicles designed with different people in mind.

Poorly designed remote controls are not intuitive, so casual users tend find them overwhelming, resulting in a frustrating user experience.

Old remote controls are another example of hit and miss UX. There is little in the way of standardization, so each one takes time getting used to.

Old remote controls are another example of hit and miss UX. There is little in the way of standardization, so each one takes time getting used to.

But what about the purely digital user experience? Too many fields in a form, or too much information may overwhelm and drive your users away.

Poorly designed digital interfaces can drive users away. Even if they don’t, they will annoy users and feel like a waste time.

Poorly designed digital interfaces can drive users away. Even if they don’t, they will annoy users and feel like a waste time.

Instead of creating the opposite behaviour, poorly designed and implemented interfaces are more likely to scare off potential users.

Start User Research With Sources For Existing Information

Yes, user research will expand the timeline and it won’t come cheap, but both time and costs can be minimized. You can start with existing, and easy accessible, sources of information about user behaviour to gain a better understanding of user needs. These are:

  • Data Analytics
  • User Reviews and Ratings
  • Customer Support
  • Market Research
  • Usability Testing

Quality user research requires time and resources. However, you can start by using existing information to get a sense of what your users need.

Quality user research requires time and resources. However, you can start by using existing information to get a sense of what your users need.

Let’s take a closer look at each of these sources.

Data Analytics

If you are working with an existing product, your client might have some data and insights about its use. Data analytics assist with getting a good overview about general usage: How many visitors are coming to the website, what pages are most visited, where do visitors come from, when do they leave, how much time do they spend where, and so on.

But here is what this data is not telling you: How does the experience feel? What do users think about your service, and why are they spending time on your website? Why do they leave?

For example, your data indicates that users are spending a lot of time on a specific page. What it doesn’t tell you is why. It might be because the content is so interesting, which means users found what they were looking for. On the other hand, it could be an indication that users are looking for something they cannot find.

Data Analytics is a good starting point, but it needs further qualitative data to support the interpretation of the statistics.

User Reviews And Ratings

Your client’s product might have received some user feedback, already. There might be a section for feedback or ratings on the website itself, but external sources may be available as well. People might have talked about it in blog posts or discussion boards, users may have given app reviews in an app store. Check different sources to see what users are saying.

However, be aware of limitations. People tend to leave reviews and ratings about negative experiences. Don’t take this as a reason to shy away from user reviews or to ignore feedback!

“All these complainers… These aren’t the users we want, anyway!”

Instead, try to look for patterns and repetitive comments. Here are a few tips for making the most from user input:

  • Check whether any action has been taken on negative comments.
  • Compare the timing of negative comments to releases and changelogs. Even great apps can suffer from poor updates, leading to a lot of negative comments in the days following the update.
  • Do your best to weed out baseless comments posted by trolls.
  • What are users saying about the competition? Identify positive and negative differentiators.
  • Don’t place too much trust in “professional and independent” reviews because they can be anything but professional and independent.

User reviews are a good source for collecting information on recurrent problems and frustrations, but they won’t give you an entirely objective view of what users think about your product.

Customer Support

Your client might have a customer support hotline or salespeople who are in touch with the user base. This is a good resource to get a better understanding of what customers are struggling with, what kind of questions they have, what features/functionality they are missing.

Setting up a couple of quick interviews with call center agents, and even shadowing some of their calls, will allow you to collect helpful data without investing too much time or money.

Customer support provides you with a good opportunity to learn about potential areas for improvement, but you will have to dive in deeper to get detailed information about problems.

Market Research

Your client may have some basic information about the customer base, such as accurate demographic information, or a good understanding of different market segments. This information is valuable to understand some of the factors behind the buying decision.

It does not offer any information about the usage of the product, though.

Market research is a good source of information if you need a better understanding of how your client thinks, what their marketing goals are, and what their market looks like. However, it won’t reveal all relevant details about user goals or needs.

Usability Testing

If you are lucky, your client might have done some usability tests and gained insights about what users like or dislike about the product. This data will help you understand how people are using the product and what the current experience looks like.

It is not quantitative research, and therefore you won’t get any numbers and statistics, but it helps you identify major problems, and gives you a better understanding about howyour user group thinks.

There is also the option to do some quick remote testing session by using services such as usertesting.com.

Usability tests are another good way of identifying key problem areas in a product.

How To Educate Your Client About The Value Of User Research

The budget might be small and the timeline tight, but ignoring user research will eventually bite you. Help your clients avoid pitfalls by making them aware of the benefits of user research.

What’s the ROI of good user experience? Knowledgeable UX experts must be able to communicate the value of user research to clients.

What’s the ROI of good user experience? Knowledgeable UX experts must be able to communicate the value of user research to clients.

Here are some common arguments against user research and how to deal with them:

  • We don’t need user research. We trust in your skills as a UX expert

As a UX designer, you need to view user research as part of your toolkit, just like a hammer or saw for a craftsman. It helps you to apply your expertise in practice. No matter how much expertise you have as a designer, there is no generic solution for every problem. The solutions always depend on the user group and the environment, so they need to be defined and understood for every product.

User research will help get an unbiased view, to learn about users’ natural language, their knowledge and mental models, their life context.

You are the UX design expert, but you are not the user.

  • Just use best practices instead of research

Best practices originate from design decisions in a specific context; the digital industry is evolving at a rapid pace, design trends and recommendations change constantly, there is no fixed book of rules. We need to be able to adjust and adapt. Those decision should be made based on research, not practices employed by others, on different projects.

  • We already know everything about our users

Invite your client to a user needs discovery session to observe how users are using the product. Start with small tests and use remote usability testing tools such asusertesting.com to get some quick insights and videos of users in action.

The outcome might be a user journey map or a user task flow. Aim for a visualized document that identifies outstanding questions so you can define areas that need more research.

  • We have personas, we don’t need more research

Personas are a good tool for making your target group more tangible, and for becoming aware of different needs, key task flows and and how that might vary for different groups. It’s the common ground and a good starting point.

However, to redesign a product you need a better understanding of the usage. You need to know how people work with your product, what they do with it, when they get frustrated.

Ask for further details about user stories and task flows to make use of personas.

  • We don’t have the budget for it

The above list of sources for information about user behaviour should give you a good starting point for sharing ideas with your client on how to gain user information on a (very) tight budget.

Make your client aware of the risks if product design decisions are made without a good understanding of the user.

User Research Is The Basis Of Every Good User Experience

User experience is still a bit of a “mystery” in many circles: Everybody talks about it yet it is hard to define, as a good experience is in the eye of every user.

It is, therefore, key to gaining a sound understanding of the context, the user goals, and the thinking necessary for designing a truly exceptional user experience.

The more transparent you are with your work process, the better your client will understand your tools and the information you need to make good decisions.

While some clients may not be open to the idea of using additional resources on research, it’s necessary for experience specialists to explain the value of user research, and to argue for further research when necessary. To accomplish this, UX designers will require negotiating skills to make their case.

Luckily, proper user research is beneficial to clients and UX designers, so convincing clients to divert more resources towards research should be feasible in most situations. Reluctant clients may be swayed if you manage to devise a cost-effective user-research method, and I hope some of the tips and resources in this article will help boost user research, even if money is tight.

The original article was written by  FRAUKE SEEWALD, a Toptal web designer.

Advertisements

Are All Trends Worth It? Top 5 Most Common UX Mistakes That Designers Make


As web designers, we are constantly trying to create a great user experience and help users achieve their goals. In our daily work, we are using all kinds of common patterns and trends. In my experience, I have seen how those patterns and trends can easily steer both clients and designers/developers in the wrong direction. It’s no secret that from time to time we all get sidetracked with things that seem or look cool. I admit, I’ve fallen into those traps on plenty of occasions myself — I’ve opted to create something visually appealing and sacrificed the usability because of it. Why did I do it? I presumed a wow moment will happen and magically engage the user. I hoped this wow effect would make a long lasting impact. The sobering moment came when I found out my users had a hard time understanding the interface I had created and was proud of. Sometimes you learn the hard way.

Top 5 Common UX Design Mistakes

The lesson I learnt was that to avoid a bumpy ride for our users, we must always ask ourselves what is under the shiny surface of the user interface we are creating. It’s worthwhile to stop before embracing any patterns or trends and think about the value they provide. As Kate Rutter brilliantly said, “ugly but useful trumps pretty but pointless”.

Please don’t get me wrong — I am not suggesting we shouldn’t make things pretty — I am suggesting we should aim to make things usable and pretty. The key with patterns and trends is to find a balance between what looks nice and the value behind them.

In this article, I will list several common UX mistakes I see on a daily basis. While they are not all bad per se, they can be dangerous if not implemented with caution. I’ll also share some insight on how you can improve the usability when implementing those trends or even suggest an alternative solution. Without further ado, let us get on with the list.

Common Mistake #1: Large, Fixed Headers

We’re seeing more and more of tall, sticky headers — branding blocks and menus that have a fixed position and take up a significant amount of the viewport. They stay glued to the top and often block the content underneath them. I’ve seen headers on high-production websites that are over 150 pixels in height, but is there real value behind them? I might be pushing it a little bit, but large, fixed headers remind me of the dreaded and now ancient HTML frames. Yikes! Fixed elements can have real benefits, but please be careful when dealing with them — there are a number of important things to take into account. When implementing sticky headers, bear in mind a couple of common mistakes you want to try to avoid:

Too Large for Comfort

If the decision to design a large, fixed header has already been made, do some testing to find out if large is too large. Make sure not to go overboard and stuff the header with too much content, which will result in a super tall element. With the fixed header in place, browsing should still be comfortable and fast for your users. If you are having doubts about the sheer size of the header, try making it smaller without sacrificing too much of the visual appeal and brand presence. Failing to find a good balance could result in a somewhat claustrophobic experience for your users and leaving a small amount of room for the main content.

Last year, I have been working on a project where the client insisted on a sticky navigation bar on the desktop resolution. Even though the bar was not especially tall, I feared some users might get that claustrophobic feeling of being boxed in. My workaround was simple — by giving the nav bar a slight transparency using CSS, the users were able to see through the bar, which made the content area feel bigger. Here is that small piece of CSS code, so why not try and see if that works for you too.

.header { opacity: 0.9; }

Here is an example I found in the wild. Recently, I stumbled upon ATP’s player profile page on Roger Federer.

Its fixed header has a height of about 110px, and when you scroll down the page, a sub navigation appears, making the header 160px high. That is over 30% of the entire page height on my MacBook Pro with the dock open.

Not Fixing The Problem on Mobile

Granted, a lot of users will be using a huge screen, and sticky menus could be a plus on super big resolutions, but what about the smaller resolutions and the mobile world? Bear in mind that a significant portion of your users will be using a small resolution device, so for mobile, position: fixed is probably not the way to go. Thankfully, responsive techniques allows us to design a different solution and stick with the sticky for large resolutions only. The mobile-first approach will provide a lot of the answers — start with the mobile resolution, with only the essential content, and work your way up.

Coffee with a Cop also has a fixed header, but much smaller — less than 80 pixels.

This is arguably a good solution on large resolutions, as it enables quick and easy navigation. On small resolutions, the header is also fixed and takes up a considerable amount of the viewport. I would advise against a sticky header on mobile and suggest a sticky hamburger icon, which would open up a menu when tapped on. Although this pattern is not a universal problem solver, it does free up a significant amount of space. On smartphones and tablets, space can be precious.

Common Mistake #2: Thin Fonts

Thin fonts seem to be everywhere — numerous native mobile apps and modern websites. With screen technology advancing and rendering improving, a lot of designers are opting for thin (or light) fonts in their designs. They are elegant, fresh, and fashionable. However, thin type can cause usability problems. One of the main goals of any text is to be legible, and thin type can affect legibility in a major way. Keep in mind that not everyone will be using your website on a display that will render the thin type well. For instance, I have found thin type extremely difficult to read on my iPhone and iPad with Retina display. Before thinking about the look and feel of font, let’s step back for just a second.

If users can’t read the words in your app, it doesn’t matter how beautiful the typography is

From the Apple Human Interface Guidelines:

Above all, text must be legible. If users can’t read the words in your app, it doesn’t matter how beautiful the typography is.

Apple is referring to mobile apps, but the exact same principle applies to all websites. As Colm Roche said,legibility ≠ optional, but mandatory for good usability. There is no point putting content on a website if most of your users can barely read it, is there?

Here are some of the common mistakes you might want to bear in mind before putting your type on a diet:

Using Thin for Thin’s Sake

As with any trend, it is dangerous to use it simply because others are using it. Fonts should not only look good. First and foremost, they should be legible and provide a stepping stone to good usability. The decision to use thin type simply because of the fact that it looks good is bound to backfire. In his excellent talk More Perfect Typography, Tim Brown talks about a sweet spot at which a typeface sings. This sweet spot would be a combination of size, weight and color where you set the foundation of your website.

To make sure you have found a good body font and hit that sweet spot, do some testing in various environments. Which leads us to the next mistake worth avoiding:

Not Testing the Legibility on All Major Devices

Thin type may look good on your display and you may not have a hard time reading it, but be aware of the fact that you are not your user. Invest in usability testing to find out if your real users are happy with the typography on all major devices: desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. While doing mobile testing, have your participants use your website on mobile devices in daylight — your real users will not always have perfect browsing conditions. If you had to read something on a mobile device on a sunny day, you probably know how difficult it can be. If you decide to use a thin font on your website, there’s a simple way to adapt to mobile users. I will show a solution on a website I saw recently:

Oak does a fine job of adapting to the needs of the users — on the desktop resolution, their H1 heading has a very thin font weight. Since the heading is large and had a good color contrast, I suspect legibility does not suffer. On mobile, where the size of the heading is significantly smaller, the weight is slightly thicker, which surely aids legibility. Clearly, they have spotted legibility issues with thin fonts on small sizes and implemented a greater font weight through media queries. Their solution is simple, but very effective.

Common Mistake #3: Low Contrast

Low color contrast has become somewhat of a trend in user interface design in recent years. We have already covered thin fonts, which create a low type contrast, but there is much a bigger trap you can fall in — a combination of thin type with low color contrast will make yours truly really scratch his head and think have we lost our minds? Of course, not all low contrast is bad. It can even add to the visual appeal if designed with care. But as is the case with all UX mistakes, it is important not to go over the top and keep usability in mind.

A couple of major mistakes you might want to avoid while dealing with contrast are:

Low Color Contrast in Body Copy

While low color contrast is not exclusively bad, it can have quite a bad impact on the usability of your website and make text very hard to read for some of your users. If this article inspires you to increase color contrast on one thing only, make that your main body copy. It is most probably the least favorable area to experiment.

Cool Springs Financial uses a thin variant of Helvetica for body text. While it looks elegant and contributes to an aesthetically pleasing user interface, it is difficult to read on a number of platforms.

I did a quick test on a MacBook Pro with retina display, as well as an iPhone and an iPad with retina display. The screenshot is from my MacBook Pro which reveals contrast and legibility problems. I had a hard time reading the text on the website on all of my devices.

Not Testing the Contrast

Consider doing some user testing to avoid issues down the road. I already hear some of my clients and colleagues go “Bojan, user testing is time-consuming and expensive”. It can be, but it really does not take an awful lot to test the contrast on your website. Start with body copy and work your way up. There is a nifty tool called Colorable which will help you set a correct text contrast according to the WCAG accessibility guidelines. Once you know you are using correct text contrast, adjust other colors on your website and do quick user tests to make sure most of your users have a pain-free time. I doubt low contrast will cause a rebellion, but it could frustrate a lot of your users.

Common Mistake #4: Scroll Hijacking

Another trend we’re seeing a lot of is the scroll hijack. Websites that implement this trend take control of the scroll (usually with JavaScript) and override a basic function of the web browser. The user no longer has full control of the page scroll and is unable to predict its behavior, which can easily lead to confusion and frustration. It’s a risky experiment that could hurt the usability, so I advise great caution.

If you’re set on implementing a scroll hijack, you might want to try and avoid the following mistakes:

Using the Hijack Just Because It’s Trendy

Some websites can get away with scroll hijacking, but that is no guarantee your website can. Trends and patterns can’t be blindly followed and implemented. For example, we’re seeing many designers follow Apple’s presentational pages with scroll hijacking, parallax effects and high resolution images of various devices. Apple has their own reasons, their own users, a unique concept, and unique content. Since every website has unique problems, it also must have solutions tailored for those problems.

Not Testing on Actual Users

To avoid issues when borrowing ideas or patterns, make sure to test the prototype of your website on users. Simple usability testing will reveal whether the implementation of the scroll hijack is feasible or not. Testing will surely answer a lot of questions and provide clues on how you can improve upon your idea. Without testing, you have no way of knowing which way to go and developing websites based on assumptions are often costly in the long run.

Tumblr uses scroll hijacking on their current homepage. While their implementation could also be a risky one, it seems they understand their target audience, the content and concept supports it, and that they have addressed many of the user needs. When the user attempts to scroll down the page, the scroll is hijacked by the website, but the user is then quickly taken to the next section of the homepage. The content is broken into several sections or blocks, which are clear to distinguish and big indicator dots are fixed on the left side of the viewport. As a result, the homepage feels like a huge carousel you have control over, rather than an experimental website with a mind of its own.

Common Mistake #5: Ineffective Carousels

Carousels are very common on the web, and have been for a long time. While they can be effective, they can also turn into a nightmare if not designed and developed carefully. The nightmare for your users could be the fact that they are having difficulties understanding it. The nightmare for you could be the fact that your users are not seeing the important content in some of the slides of the carousel.

Carousels with no content of importance: not the most effective use of space on your website

Carousels with no content of importance: not the most effective use of space on your website

A lot of carousels I’m seeing have similar downsides. Some of those are:

Lack of Real Value for the Users

What is the real value the carousel offers to your users? If done right, a carousel should engage your users and help them achieve their goals quickly and pain-free. I often see carousels that do not provide additional value, but appear to be mere decoration. Here is a quick test you can do: take a post-it and write down three benefits of the carousel for the user. If you fail to think of three, there is a good chance your carousel needs more work.

Too many slides could have a negative effect on the users and they might simply choose to ignore the carousel. Usability guru Jakob Nielsen suggests the following:

Include five or fewer frames within the carousel, as it’s unlikely users will engage with more than that. While more than five could be too many, less than three could indicate a better solution is well-advised. One of the premises for a carousel is the fact that you need a lot of content fitted into a small amount of space, but with just two slides, why not show both slides at a time and forget about sliding altogether?

The previous and next Arrows and Slide Indicators Are Not Obvious and/or Accessible

Make sure you are making your precious content accessible. Important information in a carousel could remain hidden if the next and previous arrows are not obvious and large enough for a comfortable click. Oh, and do not forget the tap — your mobile users will thank you.

Sometimes, there are no arrows in a carousel, and the indicator dots are links for jumping between slides. Remember that you need to provide a nice, big clickable and tappable area (I recommend 35x35px at the very least). Otherwise, the small targets might lead to a very frustrating target practice and an exit from your website.

The Floresta Longo Foundation website has a carousel of images in the header. It has an autoplay and slides through five photographs. The previous and next arrows are small and are transparent which makes them both hard to spot and hard to click or tap. There are no indicators of the slide you are on and no labels showing what the photograph represents. The images are not links and act as a decoration. While the carousel may hold some value of engaging the user, it certainly leaves a lot to be desired.

Conclusion

I have listed several common UX mistakes in some of the current web trends. If you have implemented or are thinking about implementing any of them, I sincerely hope this article has provided something you will find useful. As a UX designer, use your best judgement and do not be afraid to improvise, but always remember to keep your users in mind.

Feel free to start a conversation below. I would love to read about your experiences, points of view, or suggestions on how to make things better.

The original article is from Toptal. Find more UX resources here.